The Threat of Optical Transmission Jamming

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26636/jtit.2023.4.1402

Keywords:

clip-on coupler, optical communication jamming, optical networks vulnerability

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate how data transmissions may be affected by various types of optical interference introduced into the fiber on purpose, via a clip-on coupler. The research proved that transmissions may be jammed completely using inexpensive equipment readily available on the market, provided that the attacker has physical access to the fiber optic cable. The most dangerous attacks rely on a typical, slowly modulated communication laser with a rectangular waveform. This study urges further research aimed at counteracting such attacks.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Opterna and iDefence, "Threats to Fiber Optic Infrastructures", A Blackhat Federal Briefing, Tech. Rep., 2003 [Online]. Available: https://www.blackhat.com/presentations/bh-federal-03/bh-fed-03-gross-up.pdf

Delloite, "Tapping of Fiber Networks", Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu Ltd., Tech. Rep., 2017 [Online]. Available: https://zybersafe.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Deloitte_Fiber_tapping_Q1_2017_English.pdf

M. Medard, D. Marquis, R.A. Barry, and S.G. Finn, "Security Issues in All-optical Networks", IEEE Network, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 42-48, 1997. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/65.587049

T. Uematsu, H. Hirota, T. Kawano, T. Kiyokura, and T. Manabe, "Design of a Temporary Optical Coupler Using Fiber Bending for Traffic Monitoring", IEEE Photonics Journal, vol. 9, no. 6, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2017.2762662

H. Hirota et al., "Optical Cable Changeover Tool with Light Injection and Detection Technology", Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 14, pp. 3379-3388, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2016.2568221

Go4Fiber Ltd., "PFC 1000, Passive Fiber Clip-on Coupler", Tech. Specification, Available: https://spec.go4fiber.com/testing_equipment/pfc_1000.pdf

Fiber Optic Devices Ltd., "Clip-On Coupler FOD5516", Tech. Specification, Available: https://www.fods.com/pdf/4/5516DS.pdf

A. Salim, S.S. Carroll, and J. Atai, "Limits of Intrusion Detection Systems in a Gigabit Optical Link", Optical Engineering, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 1-4, 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3407426

C. Mendonca, M. Lima, and A. Teixeira, "Security Issue Due to Reflection in PON Physical Medium", 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry, UK, 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICTON.2012.6254487

M.P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P.R. Prucnal, "Optical Layer Security in Fiber-optic Networks", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 725-736, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIFS.2011.2141990

S. Yuan and D. Stewart, "Protection of Optical Networks Against Interchannel Eavesdropping and Jamming Attacks", International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence, Las Vegas, USA, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCI.2014.14

S. Krishnan and A. Borude, "Security Issues in All-optical Networks", Annual SRII Global Conference, San Jose, USA, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SRII.2011.108

R. Rejeb, M.S. Leeson, and R.J. Green, "Fault and Attack Management in All-optical Networks", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 79-86, 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOM.2006.248169

D. Dahan and U. Mahlab, "Security Threats and Protection Procedures for Optical Networks", IET Optoelectronics, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 186-200, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-opt.2016.0150

T. Wu and A.K. Somani, "Cross-talk Attack Monitoring and Localization in All-optical Networks", IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1390-1401, 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TNET.2005.860103

Y. Peng, K. Long, Z. Sun, and S. Du, "Propagation of All-optical Crosstalk Attack in Transparent Optical Networks", Optical Engineering, vol. 50, no. 8, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3607412

T. Deng and S. Subramaniam, "Analysis of Optical Amplifier Gain Competition Attack in a Point-to-point WDM Link", Proc. of SPIE, vol. 4874, pp. 249-261, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1117/12.475302

N.S. Kapov, M. Furdek, S. Zsigmond, and L. Wosinska, "Physical Layer Security in Evolving Optical Networks", IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 110-117, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOM.2016.7537185

National Communications System, "All-optical Networks", Technical Information Bulletin 00-7, 2000 OT1cmttmnhttps://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=440833 https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=440833.

M.Z. Iqbal, H. Fathallah, and N. Belhadj, "Optical Fiber Tapping: Methods and Precautions", 8th International Conference on High-capacity Optical Networks and Emerging Technologies, Riyadh, SA, pp. 164-168, 2011.

European Patent Office, "Optical Fiber Design for Secure Tap Proof Transmission", Bulletin 2004/30, European patent application EP1256826A2, 2004 [Online] Available: https://data.epo.org/gpi/EP1256826A2-Optical-fiber-design-for-secure-tap-proof-transmission

K. Shaneman and S. Gray, "Optical Network Security: Technical Analysis of Fiber Tapping Mechanisms and Methods for Detection and Prevention", IEEE Military Communications Conference MILCOM, Monterey, USA, 2004.

C. Natalino, M. Schiano, A. Di Giglio, L. Wosinska, and M. Furdek, "Experimental Study of Machine-Learning-Based Detection and Identification of Physical-Layer Attacks in Optical Networks", Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 37, no. 16, pp. 4173-4182, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JLT.2019.2923558

C. Natalino, M. Schiano, A. Di Giglio, L. Wosinska, and M. Furdek, "Field Demonstration of Machine-Learning-Aided Detection and Identification of Jamming Attacks in Optical Networks", European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Rome, Italy, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ECOC.2018.8535155

K. Manousakis and G. Ellinas, "Attack-aware Planning of Transparent Optical Networks", Optical Switching and Networking, vol. 19, pp. 97-109, 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.osn.2015.03.005

Downloads

Published

2023-12-27

How to Cite

Kowalczyk, M., Marzecki, M., & Siuzdak, J. (2023). The Threat of Optical Transmission Jamming. Journal of Telecommunications and Information Technology, 4(4), 93–101. https://doi.org/10.26636/jtit.2023.4.1402

Issue

Section

ARTICLES FROM THIS ISSUE

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.